Month: December 2016

Cummins ISL-G Facts and Specifications

History:

The Cummins L series engine is a straight 6 cylinder engine started in 1982 as the L10 engine. It displaced 10.0 liters (610 cu. In.) in a diesel configuration.
In 1992 the L10 was introduced in a CNG (compressed natural gas) configuration and was designated the L10G.
In 2001 the L10G was replaced by Cummins Westport L-Gas Plus which was 8.9 liters (540 cu. In.) CNG engine was a collaboration with Westport Innovations.
In 2007 the L-Gas Plus was replaced by the Cummins Westport ISL-G which was 8.9 liters (540 cu. in.) CNG engine which was also a collaboration with Westport Innovations.
In 2016 Cummins Westport introduces the Cummins ISL-G Near Zero (NZ) engine. It is 8.9 liters (540 cu. in.) CNG engine. It meets and exceeds the EPA and CARB emissions standards.

 


 

Cummins Designators:

ISL-G = Interact System. Interact System meaning that the engine is capable of interacting with the transmission and other electronically controlled devices in the truck or bus.
L = L series engine line. Which includes L10, L-gas Plus and ISL-G.
B = B series engine line. This includes 3.3, 3.9, 4.5, and 5.9 liter engines. These engines are offered in electronic models and fully mechanical models. The 5.9 liter engine is offered in both automotive and industrial versions.
C = C series engine line, which is the 8.3 liter engines. They are available in both fully mechanical and electronic versions with industrial and automotive versions.
E = An older engine designator which meant the engine was electronically controlled.
Q / QS = Quantum System. Signifies that an industrial engine is electronically controlled.
K = K series engine line, which includes 19, 23, 38, 45, 50, and 60 liter engine models.
M = M series engine line which would be the M11 engine. This is an 11 liter engine that came in industrial and automotive versions.
N = N series engine. Which included NTA855 and N14 engine series that came in industrial and automotive versions.
T = T series engines. The T designates the electronic controlled engine. Example QST30. But, in a mechanically controlled engine, the T designates Turbo. Example 6BT
X = Series engine line, which are the 15 liter engines only. Industrial and automotive versions available.

 


 

Engines:
Cummins Westport ISL-G

Cummins Westport ISL-G is a spark ignition stoichiometric engine. It has an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions for NOx (nitrogen oxide) reduction. It uses an EGR cooler to lower to lower combustion temperatures and knock tendency.

ISL-G Specs:

⇒8.9 liter (540 cu. in.) inline 6 cylinder
⇒4 stroke cycle, spark-ignited, turbocharged, charge air cooler(CAC)
⇒Bore and Stroke 4.49 in. X 5.69 in.
⇒Firing order 1-5-3-6-2-4
⇒Oil capacity 7.3 U.S gallons / 29.2 Quarts
⇒Dry weight 1,625 lbs. / 737 kg.
⇒Emissions: EGR and Three Way Catalyst (TWC)
⇒Valve lash cold:
Intake – 0.014 in. (0.355 mm)
Exhaust – 0.030 in. (0.762 mm)
⇒Fuel types: CNG, LNG and Bio-methane.
⇒Three Way Catalyst (TWC) after treatment.
(It does not require Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) or what is known as UREA.)

 


 

Ratings:

 Engine  Advertised HP (kW) @ RPM  Peak Torque lb-ft (Nm) @ rpm Governed speed 
 ISL-G 320  320 (239) @2000  320 (239) @2000  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 300  300 (224) @ 2100  860 (1166) @ 1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 280  280 (209) @2000  900 (1220) @ 1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 260  260 (194) @ 2200  660 (895) @1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 250  250 (186) @2200  730 (990) @ 1300  2200 rpm

 

Maintenance:

 Item  Distance  Hours  Months
 Oil & Filter*  7,500 mi (12,000 km)  500  6
 Fuel Filter  15,000 mi (24,000 km)  1,000  12
 Coolant Filter  7,500 mi (12,000 km)  500  6
 Spark Plugs**  22,500 mi (36,000 km)  1,500  18
 Coolant Change  30,000 mi (48,000 km)  2,000  24
 Valve Adjustment***  30,000 mi (48,000 km)  2,000  24
Air Cleaner Follow manufacturers published recommendation

*Use oil approved for CNG engines
** Service intervals vary based on average speed of vehicle, which increase or decrease intervals
***Initial valve adjustment at 1,000 hours.
 


 

Cummins Westport ISL-G Near Zero (NZ)

Cummins Westport ISL-G Near Zero (NZ) was introduced in 2016. This engine was certified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Air Resources Board (ARB) of California for meeting the 0.02 g/bhp-hr optional Near Zero NOx (nitrogen oxide) emission standards for medium duty truck, transit bus, school bus and trash truck. The engine is a spark ignition stoichiometric burn. It has an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for emissions. It uses an EGR cooler to lower to lower combustion temperatures and knock tendency.

ISL-G Near Zero (NZ) Specs:

⇒8.9 liter (540 cu. in.) inline 6 cylinder
⇒4 stroke cycle, spark-ignited, turbocharged, charge air cooler(CAC)
⇒Bore and Stroke 4.49 in. X 5.69 in.
⇒Firing order 1-5-3-6-2-4
⇒Oil capacity 7.3 U.S gallons / 29.2 Quarts
⇒Dry weight 1,625 lbs. / 737 kg.
⇒Emissions: EGR and Three Way Catalyst (TWC)
⇒Valve lash cold:
Intake – 0.014 in. (0.355 mm)
Exhaust – 0.030 in. (0.762 mm)
⇒Fuel types: CNG, LNG and Bio-methane.
⇒Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) system that prevent crankcase emissions from going to atmosphere.
⇒Three Way Catalyst (TWC) after treatment.
(It does not require Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) or what is known as UREA.)

 


 

Ratings:

 Engine  Advertised HP (kW) @ RPM  Peak Torque lb-ft (Nm) @ rpm Governed speed 
 ISL-G 320  320 (239) @2000  320 (239) @2000  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 300  300 (224) @ 2100  860 (1166) @ 1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 280  280 (209) @2000  900 (1220) @ 1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 260  260 (194) @ 2200  660 (895) @1300  2200 rpm
  ISL-G 250  250 (186) @2200  730 (990) @ 1300  2200 rpm

 

 

Maintenance:

 Item  Distance  Hours  Months
 Oil & Filter*  7,500 mi (12,000 km)  500  6
 Fuel Filter  15,000 mi (24,000 km)  1,000  12
 Coolant Filter  7,500 mi (12,000 km)  500  6
 Spark Plugs**  22,500 mi (36,000 km)  1,500  18
 Coolant Change  30,000 mi (48,000 km)  2,000  24
 Valve Adjustment***  30,000 mi (48,000 km)  2,000  24
Air Cleaner Follow manufacturers published recommendation

*Use oil approved for CNG engines
** Service intervals vary based on average speed of vehicle, which increase or decrease intervals
***Initial valve adjustment at 1,000 hours.

 

 

 

Cummins ISL-G Engine Control System

The control system for the ISL-G engine is a closed loop control system. The electronic control module determines the controls the throttle plate and fuel control valve to provide the correct air/fuel ratio based on driver demands. Upon initial starting the engine remains in open loop for about 2 minutes before going into open loop.

Some of the sensors shown here may not apply to the engine you are working on. The ISL-G engine is built with several potential sensor configurations, such as: two possible EGR pressure differential sensors, two possible intake humidity temperature/pressure sensors, two possible aftertreatment sensors, and two possible crankcase pressure sensors, among many others.

 


 

INPUT SENSORS

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensors

The accelerator position sensor is a Hall Effect sensor attached to the accelerator pedal. The accelerator position sensor varies the signal voltage to the engine control module (ECM) as the accelerator pedal is depressed and released. The accelerator pedal contains two position sensors, these sensors (1) and (2) are used to measure the pedal position.  The signal voltage for accelerator position 1 is twice as much as the signal voltage from the accelerator position 2. The accelerator pedal position circuit contains an accelerator pedal position 5 volt supply, accelerator pedal position return, and accelerator pedal position signal.
Sensor is located at foot pedal assembly, no adjustment or calibration is needed.

TPS, ISL-G, Cummins, Cummins TPS
 

 

After-treatment (Oxygen) Sensors

The engine control module (ECM) uses the after-treatment exhaust gas oxygen sensor 1 to determine the composition of the exhaust gas and then, to adjust fueling when operating in closed loop. The ECM uses the after-treatment exhaust gas oxygen sensor 2 to measure catalyst efficiency. The 4 wire sensors haves a built-in heater to help maintain proper sensing element temperature.
The engine turbocharger outlet oxygen sensor 1 is located in the exhaust system, downstream of the turbocharger.
The after-treatment exhaust gas oxygen sensor 2 is located in the vehicle exhaust system, just downstream of the after-treatment outlet.

O2, Oxygen Sensor, Cummins, ISL-G
 

 

 

Camshaft Position Sensor

Provides engine speed and position to the ECM. The electronic control module (ECM) provides 5 volt supply to the camshaft position/speed sensor on sensor supply circuit 1. The ECM also provides ground to the return circuit of the sensor. The camshaft position/ speed sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the engine camshaft position/speed sensor signal circuit.
The camshaft position/ speed sensor is located on the intake side of the engine above the accessory drive above the air compressor drive. (see here) 

Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, Cam position sensor

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Coolant Level Sensor

The engine coolant level sensor provides a signal to the ECM of the coolant level in the expansion (surge) tank. The electronic control module (ECM) supplies a 5 volt supply to sensor using a common sensor supply circuit. The ECM also provides a ground on the sensor return circuit.
⇒ The engine coolant level sensor is typically located in the radiator top tank or surge tank.

Cummins, ISL-G, Coolant Level, Cummins ISL-G
 

 

 

Crankshaft Position Sensor

Provides engine speed and position to the ECM. The electronic control module (ECM) provides 5 volt supply to the crankshaft position/speed sensor on sensor supply circuit 1. The ECM also provides ground to the return circuit of the sensor. The crankshaft position/ speed sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the engine crankshaft position/speed sensor signal circuit.
It is located on the intake manifold side of the engine between cylinders 5 and 6 at crankshaft level. (see here)
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, crank position sensor

 

 

Crankcase Pressure Sensor

The pressure inside the crankcase filter is measured by the crankcase pressure sensor. When the crankcase pressure sensor determines the crankcase pressure is higher than normal, this fault code is logged.
The crankcase pressure sensor is located on the crankcase ventilation filter.

 

 

EGR Differential Pressure Sensor

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) differential pressure sensor has two ports that sense exhaust pressure. This sensor signal voltage changes based on the differential pressure in the EGR crossover tube. The EGR differential pressure sensor measures the exhaust gas pressure drop across the EGR differential pressure orifice. This pressure drop is used to estimate the amount of EGR flow into the intake manifold.
The sensor is located near the EGR valve on top of the fuel housing. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, EGR, EGR pressure sensor, EGR delta pressure

 

 

EGR Valve Position Sensor

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve is opened by a motor located on top of the EGR valve. A motor shaft extends from the motor and contacts the dual-poppet valve to open the EGR valve. The EGR valve motor does not actually retract the EGR valve. The motor current is reduced and the spring pushes the EGR valve closed. The EGR valve motor contains three position sensors that detect the location of the EGR valve. These sensors report the position of the valve back to the ECM over the EGR valve position A, B, and C wires.
⇒ The EGR valve is located on the air intake connection, on top of the intake fuel module. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, EGR motor, EGR sensor, ISL-G EGR

 

 

EGR Temperature Sensor

The exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) temperature sensor is a variable resistor sensor and is used to measure the temperature of the EGR gas flow after it exits the EGR cooler. The ECM monitors the change in voltage caused by changes in the resistance of the sensor to determine the EGR flow temperature. The EGR temperature value is used by the ECM for the engine protection system.
⇒ The EGR temperature sensor is located on the EGR connection tube between the EGR cooler and the air intake connection. (see here) 
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Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor

The engine coolant temperature value is used by the ECM for the engine protection system and emissions control. The sensor is a variable resistor sensor that is used to measure the temperature of the coolant in the engine. The ECM monitors the change in voltage caused by changes in the resistance of the sensor to determine the coolant temperature.
⇒ The coolant temperature sensor is located below the exhaust manifold port for cylinder number 1. (see here)
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Intake Manifold Temperature/Pressure Sensor

The intake manifold temperature/pressure sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the intake manifold pressure sensor signal circuit. This sensor signal voltage changes based on the pressure in the intake manifold. The engine intake manifold pressure/temperature sensor is a combination sensor that also measures intake manifold temperature.
⇒ The sensor is located on the back of the fuel module near the fuel pressure regulator end cap and fuel shutoff valve. (see here) 

Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, intake manifold temp pressure sensor

 

 

Gas Mass Flow Sensor

The gas mass flow sensor measures the amount of fuel flowing into the engine. The ECM adjust the fuel control valve based on this measurement.
⇒ The gas mass flow sensor is located on the fuel housing. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, Gass mass flow sensor, Cummins gas mass flow

 

 

Humidity Sensor

The electronic control module (ECM) uses the engine turbocharger compressor intake humidity/temperature sensor to measure relative humidity. The engine turbocharger compressor intake humidity/temperature sensor is a combination sensor and is also used to measure the temperature of the air entering the turbocharger compressor.
⇒ The engine turbocharger compressor humidity/temperature sensor is located in the turbocharger compressor inlet elbow.

Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, Humidity sensor, Humidity pressure sensor

 

 

Knock Sensors

The knock sensor is an accelerometer which measures high frequency vibrations. The electronic control module (ECM) processes the voltage signals from the knock sensor to check for an elevated signal during the combustion cycle for each cylinder. One sensor can be used for multiple cylinders.

Knock is a combustion phenomenon where the end gases in the combustion chamber are compression ignited. Once ignition occurs, local combustion rates are very fast, resulting in pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber. These oscillations can result in an audible knocking or pinging sound. The oscillations are accompanied by increased heat transfer and higher surface temperatures which can result in engine damage.

Knock is initially controlled by making adjustments to the base spark timing table.  In order to prevent engine component damage caused by timing adjustments, there is a maximum limit programmed into the ECM. When timing adjustments are unsuccessful, there are two throttle de-rates utilized to eliminate knock.
⇒ Mild de-rate (25%)

⇒ Severe de-rate (65%)
The 25% de-rate limits throttle until knock is eliminated, 65% severe de-rate limits the throttle even further.  If the severe de-rate occurs enough times, the throttle is limited to a maximum severe limit until the engine is keyed off.
Knock sensor 1 is located on the side of the engine block, above the air compressor, and mounted in the lower of the two holes near cylinder number 2. (see here) 

⇒Knock sensor 2 is located on the cylinder head above cylinder number 6. (see here)

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Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, knock sensor, cummins knock sensor

 

Mass Air Flow Sensor

The air flow on most late model engines is calculated through the engine control module (ECM), it uses engine coolant temperature, engine throttle position, intake manifold pressure and temperature, humidity, and engine rpm to calculate the air flow into the engine.
⇒ Mass air flow sensor is located on the air intake adapter just before the throttle plate actuator. (see here)
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, mass air flow, cummins mass air flow

 

Oil Pressure Sensor

The engine oil pressure sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the engine oil pressure sensor signal circuit. This sensor signal voltage changes, based on the pressure in the oil rifle. The ECM will detect a low signal voltage at operating conditions when the oil pressure may be slightly lower. The ECM will detect a high signal voltage during high engine speeds or operating conditions when the oil temperature is low.
⇒ The oil pressure sensor is located on the engine block, under the ECM. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, oil pressure sensor, cummins oil pressure sensor

 

Engine Fuel Regulator Intake Pressure Sensor (Primary Fuel Pressure Sensor)

The engine fuel regulator intake pressure sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the engine fuel regulator intake pressure sensor signal circuit. This sensor signal voltage changes, based on the pressure of the fuel entering the engine (low-pressure) regulator.
The fuel pressure sensor is located on the low fuel pressure regulator housing near the fuel inlet fitting toward the rear of the engine. (see here) 

Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, fuel pressure, Inlet fuel pressure, cummins inlet fuel pressure
 

 

Fuel Outlet Pressure/Temperature Sensor ( Secondary Fuel Pressure Sensor)

The engine fuel regulator pressure/temperature sensor is a variable resistor sensor and is used to measure the temperature of the fuel exiting the low pressure regulator.  The ECM monitors the change in voltage caused by changes in the resistance of the sensor to determine the fuel temperature.
The engine fuel regulator outlet pressure/temperature sensor is located in the fuel housing near the gas mass flow sensor. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, fuel pressure sensor, cummins fuel pressure, secondary fuel pressure

 

Throttle Intake Pressure Sensor

The throttle intake pressure sensor monitors the pressure of the air after the turbocharger compressor outlet. The intake manifold pressure sensor monitors the absolute pressure of the air and fuel mixture in the intake manifold, after the engine throttle valve. The turbocharger compressor intake humidity/pressure/temperature sensor monitors the absolute pressure, temperature, and humidity of the air before the turbocharger compressor inlet. This sensor is standard on newer ISL G engines. Older engines have an analog turbocharger compressor intake humidity/temperature sensor and a separate air inlet restriction sensor.

The throttle intake pressure sensor is located on the air inlet adapter, immediately before the throttle body. The turbocharger compressor intake humidity/pressure/temperature sensor, or optional air inlet restriction sensor, is located on the air inlet connection, immediately before the turbocharger compressor inlet.
The intake manifold pressure/temperature sensor is located on the air intake manifold, directly above the fuel control housing. (see here) 
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, mixer intake pressure sensor, Cummins throttle intake pressure sensor

 

 

Turbocharger Compressor Intake Humidity/Temperature Sensor

The engine turbocharger compressor intake humidity temperature sensor is a variable resistor sensor and is used to measure the temperature of the air entering the intake of the turbocharger compressor. The ECM receives sensor information thru J1939.  The engine turbocharger compressor intake humidity/temperature sensor is a combination sensor and is also used to measure the specific humidity of the air entering the intake of the turbocharger compressor.
The engine turbocharger compressor intake humidity/temperature sensor is located on the turbocharger compressor intake elbow.
Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, Humidity sensor, Humidity pressure sensor

 

Turbocharger Compressor Intake Pressure Sensor

The engine turbocharger intake pressure sensor provides a signal to the ECM on the compressor intake pressure sensor signal circuit. This sensor signal voltage changes, based on the pressure of the atmosphere.
⇒ The engine turbocharger compressor intake pressure sensor is located just prior to the intake of the turbocharger compressor.
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, Turbo intake sensor

 

Turbocharger Turbine Intake Temperature

The engine turbocharger turbine intake temperature sensor is a variable resistor sensor and is used to measure the temperature of the exhaust gas entering the turbine of the turbocharger.  The ECM monitors the change in voltage caused by changes in the resistance of the sensor to determine the temperature of the exhaust entering the turbine. The ECM uses the engine turbocharger turbine intake temperature sensor for engine protection purposes.
⇒ The engine turbocharger turbine intake temperature sensor is located in the turbocharger turbine housing.
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, turbo temp sensor, Turbo intake temp

 

Throttle Position Sensors

There are two throttle position sensors located inside the engine throttle actuator and they share a common supply and return. The electronic control module (ECM) controls the engine throttle actuator, which is both an input and output device.
⇒ The engine throttle actuator is located between the air intake adapter and the fuel control housing. (see here) 
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, throttle plate, throttle sensors

 


 

Actuators

Engine Fuel Shut-Off Valve

The engine fuel shutoff valve is a normally closed solenoid that is control by the ECM to shutoff the flow of gas to the engine. The ECM will open the valve when it detects engine rpm.
⇒ The valve is located on the back of the fuel module, near the fuel pressure regulator end cap. (see here) 
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, fuel shut off, Fuel valve

 

EGR Valve

The EGR valve controls the amount of recirculated exhaust air entering the fuel mixer. The valve is controlled by the ECM with input from the differential and valve position sensors.
⇒ The EGR valve is located on the air intake connection, on top of the intake fuel module. (see here) 
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, EGR valve, EGR, EGR position sensor motor

 

Fuel Control Valve

The fuel control valve is regulated by the ECM to control the amount fuel entering the mixer.  The ECM precisely determines the amount the valve should be open under operating conditions by inputs from the aftertreatment (oxygen) sensor, mass air flow sensor, and the gas mass flow sensor.
⇒ The fuel control valve is located in the fuel housing next to the gas mass flow sensor. (see here) 
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, fuel control valve, fuel valve

 

Throttle Plate Actuator

The throttle actuator controls the position of the throttle plate.  The electronic control module sends a pulse width modulated signal to the actuator which in turn opens or closes the throttle plate. The electronic control module uses the measured position of the throttle plate from the position sensor to control fueling.
⇒ The engine throttle actuator is located between the air intake adapter and the fuel control housing. (see here) 
Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, throttle plate, throttle sensors

Wastegate Control Valve

The electronic control module  uses the engine turbocharger wastegate control valve to control the pressure in the diaphragm canister of the turbocharger actuator. The turbocharger actuator is connected to the turbocharger wastegate.
⇒ The engine turbocharger wastegate control valve is located on the air inlet adapter block just upstream of the throttle and connected by a tube to the turbocharger actuator. (see here) 

Cummins, Cummins ISL-G, ISL-G, wastegate control, wastegate

 

Wastegate Actuator

The wastegate actuator on the turbocharger, controls boost pressure by holding the wastegate closed until maximum boost is reached.
⇒ The wastegate actuator is located on the turbocharger.

 

 

 


 

 

Controllers

ECM (Electronic Control Module)

The engine control module (ECM), is the main computer for engine performance and drivability functions. The ECM takes the information from the various sensors on the engine, and uses that information to calculate and tune engine spark and fuel for maximum power and efficiency.
⇒ The ECM is located on the intake side of the engine. It is bolted to the engine block and is below the fuel intake module. (see here) 

 

 

Ignition Control Module

The ignition system is a coil-on-plug system that uses a separate Ignition Control Module (ICM) to operate the ignition system. The electronic control module sends timing information to the ignition control module.  In addition to the timing information, the electronic control module also sends firing commands to the ignition control module.  The ignition control module then sends firing signals to the individual coils.  These firing signals are approximately 300 volts.
⇒ The ICM is located next to the ECM on the intake side of the engine, near the flywheel housing. (see here) 

 

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Cummins Engine Intake Side View
coils, ignition coil, EGR cooler, knock sensor
Cummins Engine Top View